Bosmer, or Wood Elves, are resident race of Valenwood. Bosmer, in Wood Elf tongue means 'Tree Sap People'. This could be a reference that the Bosmer live in trees (in fact, almost the entirety of Valenwood is a lush forest).
In the Elder Scrolls series, Bosmer are the most adept in projectile weapons, namely the bow. This is not all they are good for though; they are also great thieves, due to their small size. Their greater power is also well known. They can command creatures of nature, such as rats and bears.