Hammerfell is located in the western part of Tamriel and borders Skyrim, Cyrodiil and High Rock. Inhabited by the warrior race, the Redguard, who fled to Hammerfell after their homeland, Yokuda, was swallowed up by the sea.
The interior of Hammerfell's borders consist of mostly poor farms, small towns and various outposts. The real concentration of people is limited to the high amount of port and trade cities located all along Hammerfell's coastline. These coastal cities are a major part of Hammerfell's economy and supplies a large chunk of the province's food source. The Redguards love to travel outside of their home and especially love adventure. They are known to take jobs as mercenaries, adventurers and sailors. Although, they aren't nearly as seaworthy as the Skyrim-native Nordish race.
Aside from lush greenlands that surround the coastal cities, Hammerfell is mostly rocky and barren with tribes of people who traverse the shifting sands. Hammerfell is dominated by the Alik'r desert, which takes up nearly all of it's land. In the northern part of Hammerfell lies the Dragontail Mountains. These mountains are home to outcast Orc who are said to have lost their minds and become wild animals.
The Redguard race is split into two separate groups of people. There are the more civilized Redguards, who occupy the coastal cities and are more open to Imperial rule. Then there are the Desert peoples who travel the lands in tribes and are less open to the Empire. Many Desert people have been banned from the coastal cities due to their disobedience and hatred of the Imperial law.
When their homeland was taken back by the sea, the Redguard race set sail in search of a new place to call home. After nearly a year at sea, the Redguards finally landed on the shores of Tamriel, just north of what is now the city of Hegathe. Although, the worst part of this new home was adapting to the harsh conditions such as the rolling sand storms and desert sun.
Hammerfell didn't get it's name until after the Redguard's arrived. Before that point, the Aldmer called it Hegathe, now the current capitol of Hammerfell, and the Nedic people called it Deathland, which translates to roughly the same thing.
In the year 1E420, rebels fleeing from Dunmer and Dwemer rule in Morrowind arrive in Hammerfell lead by a man named Rourken. The band of rebels settle as far from IIiac Bay as possible, somewhere along the southern borders. Surprisingly quickly, they establish trade agreements with the Bretons of the north and the elves of the south.
The Redguard's official arrival as an invasion force occurred a couple of years after the rebels had set up shop. The Redguards made short work of the Breton and elvish outposts along the coastline and quickly moved inland, destroying and claiming any and all villages and land they came across. This lead to years and years of hostility between the three said races. Eventually, the resulting wars lead to peace and ultimately, Redguard victory and complete control of Hammerfell.
Years later, Redguard society split into two groups of peoples; one side embracing Imperial law and the other side sticking to the old ways of traveling the desert in small tribes. In the year 2E864, the Septim empire seized control of Hammerfell following the death of High King Thassad II.
More currently, the armies of Hammerfell and Skyrim became locked in on going warfare after the Nords, aggressively, attacked and conquered some of Hammerfell's eastern lands. However, as the Nordish people are powerful warriors, there is no end to the conflict in sight.