See also The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind game.
The ruling island of Vvardenfell is mostly an ashy, rocky wasteland, due to the huge Red Mountain volcano occupying the island. There are some swamps around its border, however.
Morrowind's mainland is more forgiving, but not much. It is still rocky and dry.
Before the coming of the Ayleids, Morrowind was inhabited by the long extinct Dwemer, an ancient race whose civilization was controlled by machines. When the Ayleids arrived, a large group of them were exiled to the land past the great mountains of Cyrodil with the Dwemer, where they became the Chimer. The two races of mer did not live in peace however; the highly religious Chimer considered their act of non believing treason to their gods. They would eventually unite to fight a common enemy early in the First Era as the Nords of the Northwestern province of Skyrim invaded Morrowind. With the help if Indoril Nerevar of the Chimer, and Dumac of the Dwemer, the Nords were eventually pushed out fifteen years later. This alliance formed the very fist council of Morrowind. This council would last quite some time, until the alliance broke under the powerful Dwemer golem Numidium, and the creation of the Heart of Lorkhan by the Dwemer architect Kagrenac. The result of this conflict was the War of the First Council, which lasted two years until Kagrenac activated the Heart of Lorkhan on Red Mountain, ending the lives of every last Dwemer on Nirn. The hero of the Chimer, Nerevar, was killed shortly after the war by his ex-counsel, the Tribunal. The members of the Tribunal, Almalexia, Sotha Sil, Dagoth Ur, and Vivec, used the Heart of Lorkhan to give them god-like powers. The Daedric prince, Azura, wasn't pleased with this action, and cursed the Chimer, forever turning them into the Dunmer we know today. The four false gods of the Tribunal successfully converted the Dunmer religion of Daedric worship to the worship of the Tribunal, until recently. Little is known of the events of the Second Era until 2E 896, when Tiber Septim successfully integrated Morrowind into the empire. Morrowind was successfully admitted into the empire, under very strict conditions.