Valenwood is populated by the Bosmer or, Wood Elf race and is located to the southwestern corner of Tamriel. It's bordered by Cyrodiil and Elsweyr and is very close to Summerset Isle, which is due east across the sea. The Bosmer prefer Valenwood due to its high amount of woodland, which covers most of its borders.
Many inhabitants of Valenwood insist that they will never leave the beauty of the forest province, even in death. It can be describe as being one large forest, in which many secrets are kept. Including evidence of at least one lost civilization, which was home to who many believe are the ancestors of the Bosmer themselves, the Aldmer. Some of Valenwood’s trees are said to be as old as Nirn itself; one such example is that of a mysterious walking tree, known as Falinesti, that is large enough to hold an entire city. Recently, the tree has stopped moving all together but nobody knows why.
 Political System
In Valenwood, there is no single leader or even a council of leaders who governs the province as a whole. The government is controlled by whichever family is the most powerful in their particular clan or tribe. However, a once powerful government existed in Valenwood and it’s commonly believed that it is recovering, slowly. It’s also believed that once a firm leader is in control of a steady government body, said leader would be required to support the Emperor and in turn pledge whatever armed forces Valenwood has to the defense of the empire and in return, be protected. However, that may just be a desperate last shred of hope from a suffering people.
Little is known about pre-man and mer Valenwood, although, it’s said that many terrifying creatures were its inhabitants. Creatures such as giant snakes known as basilisks, fairy peoples, centaurs and satyrs, hydra, and even giants. The Aldmer, who had to adapt to the somewhat harsh conditions of the forests, later became the modern day Bosmer, promised the forest god, Y’ffre, that they wouldn’t harm the forest, mostly out of fear but also of respect, faith and because he had made their adaption easier in the long run. As a reward for their vow and to help them still further, Y’ffre allowed them to build vast, but somewhat primitive, cities in which to solidify their race and allow themselves to evolve. Decades later, the first kingdom of Valenwood arose, uniting the peoples even closer. The first monarch, King Eplear, is known for bringing together the “wild” Bosmer and making them a powerful and skilled race. He was also a selfless and fair king; he allowed sanctuary to the fleeing Ayleids who had lost control of the capitol province of Cyrodiil when Queen Alessia seized White Gold Tower in what many call one of the most historical and bloodiest slave rebellions to date. In 1E340, King Eplear decided to make an agreement with the Queen and her new, free Empire which led to trade agreements amongst the two provinces long after the Ayleids had left. His kingdom, known as the Camoran Dynasty, later fell victim to a religious prophet called Marukh. His teachings were considered offensive by high ranking officials in the Empire and led them to distrust Valenwood’s leadership. This led to a tension so great, it would later cause war.
King Eplear decided that if there was to be a war, they had better start to target the Empire’s allies in the hope that they would be weaker later on. In a Great Hunt which led Bosmer assassins and warrior to the province of Skyrim, Valenwood managed to secure its first victory against the all powerful Empire when King Borgas of Skyrim was murdered. However, Empress Herta retaliated by gaining the trust, respect and above all, the loyalty of the Colovian West. After nearly five centuries of conflict, Valenwood fell to the might of the Empire.
To prevent any future chance of rebellion, the Empire split each city of Valenwood into its own separate city-state and were required to elect a senator to act as the voice for his or her people. This system led to Bosmer loyalty for over fifty years. When the final Akaviri Potentate died of natural causes, the Camoran Dynasty tried to reinstate its authority. This act was met by resistance by the people of Valenwood who remained loyal to Imperial Law and insisted that the individuality that the Empire so graciously allowed them was the best and safest path to take. Without a real leader to guide them, separate factions began to declare war on their surrounding neighbors. Busy with their various lesser battles, Valenwood fell to an unknown enemy who caused such chaos within the province that some clans began to fight each other.
In a final act to try and unite Valenwood to fight it’s growing list of enemies, a few of the tribes who remained almost completely intact as well as at peace with one another, allied themselves with the only province who failed to get involved with the supposed war of the provinces, Summerset Isle. With the aid of the High Elves, over half of the tribes seemed to have accepted that they must unite together for the future of their land. Some tribes did not agree however, and continued to devastate each other to the brink of extinction. When all seemed lost, the newly crowned Emperor, his majesty Tiber Septim, intervened. Although he hadn’t yet invaded and forced Valenwood to embrace Imperial Law once again, the simple fact that Emperor Septim had the ability to do so rallied the Bosmer to completely unite and create a stability that hadn’t existed for two hundred years. They again adopted the government style of a kingdom so they’d have a leader to guide them. Fearing a repeat in history, Emperor Tiber Septim had little choice but to take Valenwood by force. As the new government hadn’t yet completely solidified itself, the province fell with little bloodshed.
Following the example of his ancestors, Lord Tiber Septim reinstated the city-state style of government. But this time, rather then using senators to act as the people’s voice, Lord Septim allowed a Camoran king to rule. This once again kept peace within Valenwood for a period of around fifty years. However, the Bosmer began to resent Imperial rule. An individual known as the Camoran Usurper gained power during this time. He gathered and used his supporters to kill those who tried to resist his will; then, he managed to gathered even more supporters who he then used to launch an attack on Cyrodiil. For over two decades, he ruled Valenwood with an iron fist. Despite all the best efforts of the Empire, he was finally defeated by a rebellion of his own generals.
Deciding that the politics of the rest of Tamriel only led to bloodshed and suffering, Valenwood as a whole vowed to live the simple life the way their ancestors did, relying on the forest for survival.